1. Catherine McCulloch
  2. Senior Project Director; PI, CADRE
  3. Community for Advancing Discovery Research in Education (CADRE)
  4. http://cadrek12.org
  5. Education Development Center (EDC)
  1. Malcolm Butler
  2. Community for Advancing Discovery Research in Education (CADRE)
  3. http://cadrek12.org
  4. University of Central Florida
  1. Cory Buxton
  2. https://education.oregonstate.edu/people/cory-buxton
  3. Professor
  4. Community for Advancing Discovery Research in Education (CADRE)
  5. http://cadrek12.org
  6. Oregon State University
  1. Salvador Huitzilopochtli
  2. Community for Advancing Discovery Research in Education (CADRE)
  3. http://cadrek12.org
  4. University of California, Santa Cruz
  1. Leanne Ketterlin-Geller
  2. https://www.smu.edu/Simmons/AboutUs/Directory/EdLeadership/KetterlinGeller
  3. Professor
  4. Community for Advancing Discovery Research in Education (CADRE)
  5. http://cadrek12.org
  6. Southern Methodist University
  1. Arthur Powell
  2. Professor of Mathematics Education
  3. Community for Advancing Discovery Research in Education (CADRE)
  4. http://cadrek12.org
  5. Rutgers University
Presenters’
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Public Discussion
  • Icon for: Catherine McCulloch

    Catherine McCulloch

    Lead Presenter
    May 12, 2019 | 12:59 p.m.

    Broadening participation in STEM education has the potential to transform society by reducing social and economic inequities, bringing new knowledge to scientific problems and solutions, and ensuring that the general population is STEM literate. Achieving broader participation, however, requires paradigm shifts within the current education system.

    This video isn't about a single project. It's about one of the National Science Foundation's big ideas: broadening participation. It's about addressing education inequalities through our research, policy, and practice.

    What types of change are needed to broaden participation in STEM? What educational structures, approaches, and resources support access and achievement for more students?

    Please share your stories, experiences, insights, questions, and comments about this critical topic. We invite perspectives from all education stakeholders: researchers, students, parents, industry representatives, policy makers, teachers, administrators, funders, etc.

  • Icon for: Salvador Huitzilopochtli

    Salvador Huitzilopochtli

    Co-Presenter
    May 13, 2019 | 04:13 p.m.

    Thanks for this question, Catherine (and Jomo).  One major structural challenge to BP is the practice of tracking.  Tracking, which is common in many high schools, is an inherently inequitable practice that the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, and others, recommend against (see "Catalyzing Change in High School Mathematics", NCTM, 2018; and "Responding to Educational Inequality", Haas Institute, 2017).  Socio-cultural and constructivist views of learning can address this challenge because each of these hold assumptions that all students can learn and language can be viewed as a tool for learning; even a resource, rather than an obstacle.  

     
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    Selena Burns
    Amy Busey
    Rebecca Grella, Ph.D.
  • Icon for: Jake Foster

    Jake Foster

    Facilitator
    May 13, 2019 | 08:53 p.m.

    Thanks, Catherine, for sharing the overview of this important work and for your questions. I was previously viewing the #ScienceToo video. While the context is different, there are likely some similar overarching strategies that apply to broadening participation in STEM at a system level. In particular it seems that we need to integrate values into the system, provide supports for those traditionally left out of science, and increase transparency and accountability for STEM institutions that explicitly or indirectly discriminate. I think most of what I have seen to date is around supports for individuals; it would be interesting to learn about others that are working to change the culture of STEM as a field through changing values of communities, or increase transparency and accountability.

  • Icon for: Catherine McCulloch

    Catherine McCulloch

    Lead Presenter
    May 14, 2019 | 01:59 p.m.

    Hi Jake!

    Since you directed me to another video, I am going to follow suit in my response to you. I just watched the Traditional Knowledge + Modern Science video which spoke, in part, about this idea of changing values--including what type of knowledge we value (in this case, they were focusing on traditional ecological knowledge), and our understanding of who are scientists. There are connections between that project and the NSF projects, Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Teaching in Rural Areas Using Cultural Knowledge Systems and Culturally Responsive Indigenous Science: Connecting Land, Language, and Culture, with regard to engaging the local community in a process to expand the STEM education curriculum to include indigenous knowledge and practices. 

    I hope others will add comments about efforts to change community values or increase transparency or accountability with the goal of supporting more equitable STEM education.

  • May 18, 2019 | 04:27 p.m.

    I was pleased to see and read about STEM Teaching in Rural Areas using Cultural Knowledge Systems. When we engage in conversations of broadening participation, learners and educators in rural and remote locales are often overlooked, yet over half of all school districts nationally are located in rural locales and they serve over 8.9 million students. While rural schools and communities are often surrounded by rich natural resources and community members with deep knowledge of these resources, these assets are sometimes overlooked. While many of these schools face critical STEM teacher shortages, when the historical and cultural assets of the rural space are considered, there are opportunities to build collaborative solutions, broaden participation, and enhance STEM learning and teaching. To read about some of EDC’s rural efforts to close STEM education opportunity gaps, see http://ltd.edc.org/closing-STEM-education-opportunity-gaps-rural

  • Icon for: Catherine McCulloch

    Catherine McCulloch

    Lead Presenter
    May 20, 2019 | 08:36 a.m.

    Thank you, Pam. NSF has funded a number of projects through the DRK-12 program that focus on rural populations. You can learn more about them here. One of those projects, the Synchronous Online Professional Development, has a video in this showcase.

  • Icon for: Arthur Powell

    Arthur Powell

    Co-Presenter
    May 13, 2019 | 10:37 a.m.

    I am delighted that the complex phenomenon of broadening participation (BP) in STEM disciplines and careers has traction in our national conversation about improving public education. Among the complex layers of BP in mathematics education is the issue of the characteristics of tasks on which students are invited to work. In our DRK-12 project, we have evidence that some tasks characteristics that support BP are these:

    * be cognitively demanding
    * provide multiple entry points and are amenable to solutions at varying levels of mathematical sophistication
    * engage students’ powers of perception and action on physical or digitally-realized objects
    * initiate discussion based on noticing and wondering

    I am curious to know what other characteristics of tasks others find helpful in BP efforts.

     
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    Edith Graf
    Amy Busey
    Peter Tierney-Fife
  • Icon for: Jomo Mutegi

    Jomo Mutegi

    Higher Ed Faculty
    May 13, 2019 | 10:58 a.m.

    Catherine, thank you for this very powerful and very important work! I had the opportunity to read the paper your team produced, "The Use of Theory in Research on Broadening Participation in PreK-12 STEM Education." This document is a great resource.

    Could you provide an example of a challenge to broadening participation that your team identified and then share some advice on how we could use theories to address that challenge?

     
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    Amy Busey
  • Icon for: Cory Buxton

    Cory Buxton

    Co-Presenter
    May 13, 2019 | 12:03 p.m.

    Hi Jomo,

    Thanks for the comment and the question. Here's one example of how bringing new theory to a challenge of broadening participation helped us to address that challenge. Working with teachers who are new to supporting English learners in their science classrooms, one of the most common strategies that we see teachers using are attempts to simplify the language being used in the classroom without simplifying the science ideas. As students move from elementary to secondary grades this approach becomes less and less effective because the concepts become more complex and abstract and no longer lend themselves to simplified and concrete language. We found new ideas to address this issue in Karl Maton's theory of semantic codes and semantic waving. This theory allowed us to develop new tools for teachers to help them "wave" back and forth between using the abstract and dense scientific language of secondary school texts and the more concrete and simplified examples needed to make sense of and build toward more abstract meaning making.

     
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    Kate Meredith
    Selena Burns
    Amy Busey
    Jomo Mutegi
  • Icon for: Catherine McCulloch

    Catherine McCulloch

    Lead Presenter
    May 13, 2019 | 12:16 p.m.

    Thank you, Jomo, for the question, and Cory, for the great example!

    Another challenge is the availability of teachers who are adequately prepared to both teach STEM content and engage students from all types of underrepresented groups in STEM learning that is meaningful to those students. One theoretical framework that researchers are using to address this challenge is CULTURALLY RELEVANT PEDAGOGY.  The theory argues that for students to be successful, the knowledge they bring into the classroom must be acknowledged, explored, and used. Here are a few NSF projects using the theory and related research questions that are being explored:

    Relevant DRK-12 (or Other NSF) Projects

    TACIB: Transforming Academic and Cultural Identity through Biliteracy (NSF #1321339) PI: Mark Ellis; co-PIs: Armando Martinez-Cruz, Sam Behseta, Natalie Tran, Michael Matsuda, Kirk Vandersall, Janet Yamagushi

    TEACH MATH (NSF #1228034) PI: Julia Aguirre; co-PIs: Tonya Bartell, Corey Drake, Mary Foote, Amy McDuffie, Erin Turner

    Student-Adaptive Pedagogy for Elementary Teachers: Promoting Multiplicative and Fractional Reasoning to Improve Students’ Preparedness for Middle School Mathematics (NSF #1503206) PI: Ron Tzur

    Development and Empirical Recovery for a Learning Progression-based Assessment of the Function Concept (NSF #1621117) PI: Edith Graf; co-PIs: Robert Moses, Gregory Budzban, Peter van Rijn, Sarah Ohls Examples of Research

    Related Research Questions Being Explored

    How do preservice teachers’ knowledge, beliefs, dispositions, and practices related to integrating children’s mathematical thinking and children’s cultural, linguistic, and community-based funds of knowledge in mathematics instruction change as a result of a series of instructional modules for mathematics methods courses? How do local instructor, course, program, university, and community contexts mediate the implementation of these modules? What supports and challenges do preservice and early career teachers face in implementing instructional practices in their PreK–8 classrooms that integrate children’s mathematical thinking and children’s cultural, linguistic, and community-based funds of knowledge, and how do they negotiate these challenges? What are the relationships between early career teachers’ knowledge, beliefs, dispositions, and instructional practices and their PreK–8 students’ mathematics learning and dispositions? How can we enhance the ability of teachers to provide quality mathematics education?

     

     

     
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    Fatai Bakare
    Jomo Mutegi
  • Icon for: Cory Buxton

    Cory Buxton

    Co-Presenter
    May 13, 2019 | 11:02 a.m.

    Broadening participation in STEM educational and occupational pathways requires simultaneous work in multiple areas. One of those areas that is often recognized as important for student success but still underrepresented in the research base is family and community engagement. Teachers (and schools more broadly) often feel underprepared to engage with the families of minoritized students.

    On the positive side, we have found in our research that this is an area where a little bit of positive experience can go a long way. When teachers, school leaders and other school personnel have opportunities to participate in well-structured co-learning experiences with students, families and community members from groups underrepresented in STEM, transformational ideas and experiences can quickly take hold. The challenge of course, is to structure these activities in ways that cause people to re-examine their assumptions and implicit biases (we all have them) in positive ways rather than in ways that reinforce existing deficit perspectives.

    What experiences have you had with creating or engaging in learning spaces with students, families and communities that supported these kinds of transformations? What advice do you have for educators who are looking to take first steps in this area?

     
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    Amy Busey
  • Icon for: Michelle Brown

    Michelle Brown

    Graduate Student
    May 20, 2019 | 03:15 p.m.

    Hi Cory,
    I appreciate the video and your post! I just completed my first year in grad school, working with Dr. Carla Zembal-Saul in a national PD project (Science 20/20). I have been thinking deeply about Elementary STEM teachers and how experiences engaging with emergent bilingual families can help shift teaching practices and perspectives. I have had the privilege of working closely with two 2nd grade teachers who have shifted how they interact with families during open houses and family engagement events, moving from a passive role for both teachers and families, to more interactional roles, where children share the science investigations they have done in class with their families, and help their own families experience the STEM phenomenon. This positions students as experts, and allows family members to interact with teachers in more meaningful ways. In addition, we have recently begun inviting families in to share stories with the class as a small first step in building more meaningful relationships that can lead to a deeper understanding of funds of knowledge. I am hopeful this work can move into meaningful classroom interactions around STEM.

    As a researcher and teacher educator, I have found it helpful to partner with teachers as collaborators, co-designing research questions and co-presenting our findings at a conference. The conference (an educational equity conference) also helped drive our work toward equitable instruction, and opened up discussions about asset perspectives, as well as the importance of language—for example, how referring to new immigrant Spanish-speaking students who are learning English as “emergent bilingual” to highlight the value of their home language knowledge. From this work, I am learning just how important it is to work WITH rather than AT teachers to make connections to families, and how it is important to consider relationship building with families as acts of building trust. Similar to friendships and other partnerships, building connections with families, particularly those who have been marginalized, requires time and patience. Many families have experienced microaggressions, have been positioned as obstacles, and their voices have been ignored. However, like you said, the positive experiences shift how teachers position these families and how their knowledge is leveraged in the classroom.

  • May 13, 2019 | 12:01 p.m.

     I am curious to hear people's answers to the questions that Jomo & Cory posed, but wanted to raise another question to chew on. The video noted the importance of partnerships, specifically those between people in the private sector, government, and families. I was wondering if you could give an example of an effective partnership between these groups and identify what the characteristics of that partnership was that made it successful. Alternatively, what can get in the way of these partnerships and what are some strategies for mitigating those other factors?

    I'm currently the evaluator of an NSF-funded project, Museum of Science Boston's Co-Created Public Engagement with Science, where they are exploring partnerships between community partners, civic partners, and informal science institutions to facilitate socio-scientific conversations via forums with scientists and the general public. With so many stakeholders, I've been thinking a lot about the features of successful and unsuccessful partnerships, so any lessons learned from your broader efforts would be much appreciated.

     
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    Amy Busey
  • Icon for: Catherine McCulloch

    Catherine McCulloch

    Lead Presenter
    May 13, 2019 | 02:28 p.m.

    Camellia, great questions. I look forward to our presenters and guests responding. In the meantime, here are a few, initial thoughts garnered from project work and a brief that CADRE and DRK-12 awardees developed, Partnership Building as a Broadening Participation Strategy.

    • Establish partnerships from the start in order to identify the needs and assets of each group. At the same time, remember that true collaboration takes time to develop and be willing to put in the time and energy required to build trust. Recognize the expertise of all stakeholders and use that to inform the direction of the project. 
    • Represent the diversity of your target community on your project team.
    • Build broadening participation into the proposal from the outset and make certain that adequate supports, including those needed to develop and maintain the partnerships necessary for the integrity of the work, are in place throughout each phase of the project.
    • Ensure that there are structures and resources in place to enable partners to meet; understand the differences and areas of overlap between each partner's context, values, ways of working, motivations/incentives and barriers/limitations; and establish a common language for partnership communications and a plan for engagement.
     
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    Edith Graf
  • Icon for: Cory Buxton

    Cory Buxton

    Co-Presenter
    May 14, 2019 | 02:25 p.m.

    Hi Camellia,

    To add to what Catherine has offered, I've found the following chapter by Bill Penuel and colleagues to be very helpful in thinking about  building meaningful and lasting partnerships. The chapter highlights two different approaches/ metaphors for partnership building -- partnerships as a form of cultural exchange, and partnership as framing. 

    Penuel, W. R., Coburn, C. E., & Gallagher, D. J. (2013). Negotiating Problems of Practice in Research-Practice Design Partnerships. Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, 112(2), 237-255.

  • Icon for: Catherine McCulloch

    Catherine McCulloch

    Lead Presenter
    May 14, 2019 | 04:39 p.m.

    Additional resources related to the chapter that Cory mentioned can be found at http://researchandpractice.org/, the website of the Research + Practice Collaboratory

  • May 18, 2019 | 04:27 p.m.

    Catherine and Corey mentioned research-practice partnerships as a powerful tool for the broadening participation and I agree wholeheartedly. As a Co-PI on the NSF funded Research and Practice Collaboratory that Catherine referenced, we were able to bring together mathematics teacher educators, teachers, district level administrators, researchers, and STEM experts to collaboratively identify problems of practice and test improvement efforts. In this effort we were able to leverage the deep craft knowledge of educators and expertise of researchers to initiate change and establish a culture of co-investigation. Through these equity-oriented engagements, teachers and partners were able to generate strategies to broaden participation and engagement for previously underserved learners. Students were able to become full participants and drivers of their learning as you can see in this video of students working together sharing and critiquing the work of their peers. See: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MMuk_EfDz7o#action=share These opportunities also broadened the teachers’ understanding and expectations for all learners in their mathematics classrooms. To learn more about the R+P work in Maine see http://interactivestem.org/

     

  • May 13, 2019 | 02:24 p.m.

    Thank you for sharing this very timely and important video. I enjoyed viewing it and hearing the perspectives of many of those who spoke and took part in this team effort. Many of the questions posed are issues I also address in my  work with students with learning disabilities and their evolving fraction concepts.


    Because disability is a form of neurodiversity, I agree it is essential to design instruction differently- part of this design occurs in intervention work. I wonder what it means to broaden what counts as knowledge as we design interventions for students with disabilities in particular. What specific aspects of intervention design for students with disabilities needs to change? 


    One change we have made in our project is in the environment and the tasks themselves. For instance, we learned to design interventions using principles from frameworks that promote access to different ways of reasoning, such as universal design for learning and CGI. We utilize tasks that have a high cognitive demand but are also accessible to many ways of reasoning.  We do this to promote access to and ownership of knowledge. We also do this to promote a space for students to make connections between unique strategies they may bring in and those shared by other students in the group.  This is the first part of a two part intervention framework that our project is developing.


    We just ran two studies that utilize these design principles. Although we are still analyzing this exploratory data, I can share that accessible tasks such as those I describe above make a difference for students with disabilities, which is exciting.  In our ongoing analysis, we are seeing differences both in terms of how their participation in the group (how much they talk, the nature of their talk in terms of standards for mathematical practice) grows and changes along with their conceptual advance (learning trajectories).  We are also showing significant differences in score on a curriculum based measure of the curriculum from pre to post intervention.

     
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    Selena Burns
    Amy Busey
  • May 15, 2019 | 02:07 p.m.

    Thank you for sharing these insights from your research. As you note, students with disabilities are underrepresented in STEM, and some exciting research is underway to examine the instructional environment that might impact their participation and outcomes in K-12 STEM education. Considering accessibility from multiple perspectives is a key component for improving participation. I appreciate your reflection on the value of integrating principles of cognitive psychology into the examination of accessibility. Some exciting work is happening in assessments design, for example, that considers how to increase accessibility of the testing environment – broadly speaking – for students with disabilities. We are working to integrate cognitive models of learning (e.g., learning progressions and learning trajectories that represent students’ development of sophistication in thinking) as well as being careful to articulate cognitive models of performance (e.g., the cognitive processes and strategies that are elicited as students engage in problem solving). Examining the alignment between students’ elicited thinking and those that are hypothesized in the cognitive models can provide insights into how the testing environment impacts accessibility for students with disabilities.

     
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    Jessica Hunt
  • May 15, 2019 | 06:02 p.m.

    Thank you for sharing these insights from your work.  I appreciate hearing about the details of your work and the ways in which cognitive models of learning might be integrated with models of performance.  I see that we have some commonalities in terms of progressions and trajectories and their implications for task design for students with disabilities (assessment on your end, intervention on my end).  I'd love to talk more about possible intersections and ways our respective projects might inform each other.

  • Icon for: Catherine McCulloch

    Catherine McCulloch

    Lead Presenter
    May 13, 2019 | 04:02 p.m.

    The NSF publication, Framework for Evaluating the Impacts of Broadening Participation Projects, list individual and institutional level indicators of success in terms of increasing the number, parity, and diversity of members from underrepresented groups in each of the following five areas: having access to the benefits of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) knowledge; having access to STEM knowledge; studying STEM; working in STEM areas; and generating STEM knowledge. The document also states that, “A stronger, more robust STEM knowledge base is another outcome of broadening participation as the use of diverse perspectives and populations in STEM research and development efforts increase.” The document identifies student level indicators across four dimensions  (participation; retention, persistence, and success; experiences; and attitudes), and institutional indicators across five areas  (staffing; policies, programs, and institutional commitment; accountability and rewards; monitoring, tracking, and using data for improvement; and collaborations).

    What other goals and indicators are part of your work? What indicators do you have for teachers? What instruments are using to measure these indicators?

  • May 15, 2019 | 09:10 a.m.

    Hi Catherine,

    This is a great resource, thank you for sharing!

    We began with "how" questions around participation and engagement as opposed to using a ready made measure because we were interested in how students with diverse cognitions might participate and engage in the work.  So, we are currently examining how and to what extent students engaged with the tasks in our work, how and to what extent students employed the cognitive operations necessary to advance their conceptions of fractions within the tasks, and how and to what extent students participated in discussion with each other about their reasoning. So, this seems to align with participation and perhaps persistence.  I wonder about the link to engagement as well. 

    Are there other ready made measures that you or others would recommend as valuable in these ways?

    Thanks! 

  • Icon for: Catherine McCulloch

    Catherine McCulloch

    Lead Presenter
    May 15, 2019 | 09:31 a.m.

    Jessica,

    An oldie but goody resource we developed, Compendium of Research Instruments for STEM Education PART 2: Measuring Students’ Content Knowledge, Reasoning Skills, and Psychological Attributes, contains information on instrument constructs/variables that are measured, the target audience of the instrument, the subject domains assessed, information on obtaining the instrument, and related documents about reliability and validity evidence when it could be located. I wonder if you would find anything relevant in there? By the way, there is also a compendium of research instruments for teacher practices, PCK and content knowledge.

     

    Catherine

     
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    Jessica Hunt
  • May 15, 2019 | 06:02 p.m.

    Thanks, Catherine- very much appreciated!

  • Icon for: Terrell Morton

    Terrell Morton

    Researcher
    May 13, 2019 | 07:40 p.m.

    Thank you, CADRE Team for your work and efforts to not only support educators (broadly defined) in Broadening Participation in STEM but also in promulgating their work and challenging the STEM education community to look beyond existing concepts and ideologies used to engage K-12 STEM education. 

    A question/thought that I have also reflects some challenges that I am experiencing as a scholar-activist engaged in this work. That question/thought is, given the amount of high-quality research, scholarship, and work taking place to not only broaden participation but do so in ways that address systemic inequity, why is it that we continue to face and endure the same challenges and issues with supporting, empowering, and engaging groups historically and continually marginalized? I have my own thoughts and opinions on the answer to this question, mostly dealing with the systems and structures question you posted earlier, but I would love to hear your thoughts and others. In thinking about the charge you, CADRE, has taken on and the ways by which you all support, facilitate, and engage the work of others, is it that there needs to be more coordinated efforts to tackling this issue? Targeted efforts to strengthen collaborative endeavors engaged in this work? Other ideas? 

     
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    Salvador Huitzilopochtli
    Amy Busey
  • Icon for: Catherine McCulloch

    Catherine McCulloch

    Lead Presenter
    May 14, 2019 | 12:13 p.m.

    Terrell, thank you for joining this conversation. Regarding your comment about coordination and collaboration, I am interested in NSF’s INCLUDES  program since it is meant to provide an approach to broadening participation (at least in the workforce) based on scaling social innovations through collective impact, networked communities, and/or strategic partnerships. The American Institutes of Physics has a short article on the effort. Now that the program is several years old, a coordination hub has been funded to help (among other things) communicate the collective findings of the program and approaches to broadening participation that work. NSF generally does not provide long-term funding for initiatives, however. As we know, transforming systems and structures isn’t a small-scale or short-term endeavor; it requires multi-sector engagement and commitment.

    We would love to hear more about your thoughts and opinions, and those of others, about changes needed to systems and structures, as well as examples of small scale efforts that are making a difference.

     
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    Salvador Huitzilopochtli
  • Icon for: Cory Buxton

    Cory Buxton

    Co-Presenter
    May 14, 2019 | 02:42 p.m.

    Thanks, Terrell, for raising this important, though frustrating, issue. Structures, including structural racism and structural marginalization in our society, are of course, persistent and resistant to change. We have a saying in my family, "When you know better, you do better." But I've always felt that this applies more to individuals than to organizations, where the same lessons often seem to be visible over and over with little substantive change resulting. I've come to believe that part of this challenge is that as scholars we tend to focus on the part of the system where we believe we have the needed expertise while tending to ignore (or at least feel that we aren't equipped to deal with) other key parts of the system. So, personally, as a teacher educator, I'm quite confident working with teachers but less so about working with school or district administrators. Thus, my research has tended not to deal with issues of leadership and I've gradually come to see the limits of what my work with teachers can accomplish without connecting to other parts of the system. I believe we need more projects that look to cut across the traditional divisions in educational research. 

     
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    Salvador Huitzilopochtli
  • Icon for: Breanne Litts

    Breanne Litts

    Facilitator
    May 14, 2019 | 01:34 p.m.

    Thanks for sharing your project! This systemic focus is really critical in our broader efforts to expand participation in STEM. I am curious who is driving the project. What is the teacher's role in the project and how have you engaged them? Did they identify the partnership, transformative thinking, and researcher values discussed in the video? 

    Further, I wonder how you are tackling these very important questions about broadening participation in STEM mentioned in the video. What are your current efforts or insights to enacting these goals? It seems like your project has a lot of knowledge to share about these topics. 

  • Icon for: Malcolm Butler

    Malcolm Butler

    Co-Presenter
    May 14, 2019 | 03:10 p.m.

    Hi Breanne, Thanks for your two thoughtful questions! Of the numerous projects explicitly mentioned in our work, there are several that are clear about the role of the teacher and their engagement. The teachers were instrumental in the success of the project. For example, our project that is mentioned in the CADRE report, http://cadrek12.org/projects/school-structure-a..., included teacher surveys and interviews. In the surveys and interviews, we sought to better understand the relationships between and among the teachers and administrators, as a part of better understanding predictors of science achievement.

    For your second question, I am sure there are numerous efforts and insights underway to reach the goals. I know there are ongoing efforts to better connect our research and subsequent newly-gained knowledge to the challenges of schools and STEM achievement. For example, we are starting to see how social justice leadership can inhibit or support achievement. We are in the beginning stages of this work, and we will keep pushing!

  • May 14, 2019 | 02:15 p.m.

    Enjoyed your video as it had the feel from the start of an open door to more discussion of what is  a huge (not just big) idea.  I notice that others have leaped at the chance to join in and grateful for perspectives.

    Since our perspectives build from our increasing varied perspectives this working into discussion is intriguing . Viewing your video I thought more about the recent chase to be inclusive rather than to find a better way to create an  open  door.  Does it begin with in creating a diverse group of individuals or rather might it be by the type of invitation to share ideas on a topic through some recognized process that builds over time?  Education seems to be built on judging individuals over time periods.  With the model of this STEM-for-All conference isn’t there a way to encourage ideas from topic exploration? 

    As for sharing an idea for topics, fit and easy for broadening STEM participation…During our years allowing teachers to explore their interests and finding a meeting point on relevancy, we are  out in NH exploring. We are involving students in exploring energy sources approaching the topic in different ways-historical, economics and health considerations of their use.  Thanks for the excellent opportunity to apply your “space” into shared thought.

     
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    Kate Meredith
  • Icon for: Catherine McCulloch

    Catherine McCulloch

    Lead Presenter
    May 14, 2019 | 09:35 p.m.

    Betsy,

    Thank you for watching the video and adding a comment! I love your idea of creating an open door, or even an open door process. I wonder: In what ways might the factors that constitute or contribute to an open door vary across individuals and groups? 

  • May 15, 2019 | 08:52 a.m.

    The idea of "open door"  has a long been the appeal yet also a drawback of technology.  Certainly inclusion needs discussion within a platform that has a title of "STEM-for-All" and the presenters have a fine model with the platform, yet how are the physical barriers to STEM extended?  

    A comment arrived in our video area that asks about membership in a community of practice. That question continues my thoughts in this important area of innovation.  Stating that our project would be a "Community of Practice" rather than a required learning requirement opened that door in a physical sense.  Those in sparsely populated areas need a different construction to ensure equitable access. 

     The step beyond that construction is the piece that made the true difference.  How do we engage individuals into a broader vision of “community” with their own interests driving their involvement, yet within the “interests” of their districts to document steps to improve as a whole? 

     Members were encouraged to form cohorts and our “levels” included advancement to become continued researchers in STEM Education, showing their advancement through student evidence.

     I will continue the discussion specific to our membership and glad to have this discussion open!

  • Icon for: Catherine McCulloch

    Catherine McCulloch

    Lead Presenter
    May 15, 2019 | 03:06 p.m.

    Betsy,

    You bring up several interesting topics: the affordances and limitations of technology with regard to accessibility, and approaches to equitable access and engagement for those in rural areas. In addition, I am wondering if you can say more about the piece that you say made the true difference:

    "How do we engage individuals into a broader vision of “community” with their own interests driving their involvement, yet within the “interests” of their districts to document steps to improve as a whole?"

    This is intriguing. 

  • Icon for: Catherine McCulloch

    Catherine McCulloch

    Lead Presenter
    May 15, 2019 | 06:29 p.m.

    RE: accessibility, here is a link to some NSF projects funded through the DRK-12 program that address accessibility issues (in these cases, often caused by or solved by technology). Did you see the video in this showcase for Synchronous Online Professional Learning Experiences for Middle Grades Mathematics Teachers in Rural Contexts ? And we haven’t spoken specifically about accessibility issues due to language. There are several DRK-12 projects in this showcase that address that topic, e.g., Designing PD for Math Educators of Students Who Are Els, Fostering Math Discussions among English Learners, and Preparing Science Teachers to Support English Learners.

  • Icon for: Catherine McCulloch

    Catherine McCulloch

    Lead Presenter
    May 14, 2019 | 02:16 p.m.

    Hi Breanne, CADRE supports all of the projects funded by the National Science Foundations' DRK-12 program. Many of these projects include a goal to broaden participation in STEM education. I invite everyone to learn more about DRK-12 projects and their research, products, and findings. In fact, a number of DRK-12 projects have videos in this showcase. In addition to the paper that Jomo mentioned above, another CADRE-supported product on this topic is a brief we and DRK-12 awardees produced, Creating Inclusive PreK-12 STEM Learning Environments. These and other resources related to this topic are available on our website, cadrek12.org.

    My co-presenters are currently engaged in research related to broadening participation in STEM. They can address your questions based on their current work.

  • Icon for: Salvador Huitzilopochtli

    Salvador Huitzilopochtli

    Co-Presenter
    May 15, 2019 | 07:43 p.m.

    Hi Betsy,

    Thank you for your comment!  You bring up some interesting questions.  The first seemed like a comment on a perceived tension between being inclusive and being inviting (i.e. opening a door):

    Viewing your video I thought more about the recent chase to be inclusive rather than to find a better way to create an  open  door.  Does it begin with in creating a diverse group of individuals or rather might it be by the type of invitation to share ideas on a topic through some recognized process that builds over time?

    It feels like a chicken/egg issue.  The invitation to share ideas is predicated on the notion that the ideas might differ.  The diversity of voices in the room would then be reflected in the enrichment of the discussion, which should help all students' learning.  I agree that the type of invitation is important.

    It's also important to actively encourage and facilitate participation from all students.  For example, Barbara Rogoff's work has shown some interesting ways that interactional practices can differ across student populations.  If we ignore these kinds of differences, it could inadvertently favor particular groups of students over others.  So, educators should pay attention to the ways that students are able, or not able, to participate in discussions equitably.  What seems like an open door to a teacher or a particular student might not be interpreted as such by the next student.  That's not anyone's fault, but we do what we can to ensure all children have access to the discussion and construction of knowledge.  

  • Icon for: Catherine McCulloch

    Catherine McCulloch

    Lead Presenter
    May 15, 2019 | 09:34 p.m.

    Thanks , Sal, for pointing to Barbara's video. It is really interesting work in so many ways. For one thing, it points to the importance of ensuring that our research community is composed of, and working in collaboration with, a diverse group of people who bring a variety of perspectives based on a broad range of experiences, and who are familiar with a variety of contexts. Sal, I think you mention this in this video clip when you say the conversation will get stale if we have all the same voices in the room. We need the diversity for research to advance.

  • Icon for: Salvador Huitzilopochtli

    Salvador Huitzilopochtli

    Co-Presenter
    May 14, 2019 | 02:33 p.m.

     Hi Terrell,

    Thank you.  This is a great comment.  I like how Gloria Ladson-Billings used the idea of the 'education debt', rather than achievement gap, to frame student achievement in the US (Ladson-Billings, 2006).  She considers the historical, economic, sociopolitical, and moral debt that has accumulated against non-white populations of students.  In this article Ladson-Billings says, “Despite how hard we try, there are two interventions that have never received full and sustained hypothesis testing—school desegregation and funding equity” (p.9).  I think this is a powerful statement because of its continued relevance.  School segregation is a bigger problem now than it has been in a generation and a recent report showed that non-white school districts get $23billion less funding than their white counterparts.  

    I'm not sure, but the same challenges and issues are likely to keep manifesting as long as these structural issues remain.   

    I really appreciate your suggestion about coordinating efforts.  It reminds me of the JRME research committee's (Beth Herbel-Eisenmann et al., 2016) statement about 'storylines' in mathematics education.  The authors suggest we, as researchers, engage collectively and communicate to broader audiences so that we can wield a new kind of influence.  That seems promising.  

     
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    Catherine McCulloch
  • Icon for: Malcolm Butler

    Malcolm Butler

    Co-Presenter
    May 14, 2019 | 03:25 p.m.

    Hi Terrell,

    Your particular point about "collaborative endeavors" is well taken. Indeed, several other contributors to this discussion have made other cogent points that lead me to share the following thoughts. It seems to me that in order to broaden participation, we must think and act Systemically and Systematically, with Sustainability added to the equation. And this is not the work of one person; rather groups of people must be thinking and acting in accordance. I have found synergism from this way of thinking and acting. We must continue to have a short term perspective and a long term vision of what could be. Engaging and working with people with different experiences and ideas is hard and challenging and necessary work. Yet it is our way forward in expanding our notion of who does science and math.

  • May 16, 2019 | 08:02 a.m.

    Very nicely presented video on essential considerations for equity in STEM education. You have a terrific team. Although, the issues are well identified, your point about reaching out to all who influence in education is key. One issue I see frequently in STEM education at the elementary level, is the lack of time in a school day dedicated to science and STEM related instruction. I believe teachers identify this challenge. As Malcolm states above, small steps toward the goals is key to the long term solutions for all learners.

     
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    Malcolm Butler
  • May 16, 2019 | 10:26 a.m.

    Hi Tracey!

    Thanks for watching our video and pointing out this important systems-level barrier to improving positive STEM outcomes for all students. I enjoyed hearing about your project and the approach your team is using to engage youth who are in non-traditional school settings. Identifying points in which the system is not serving all learners (e.g., daily bell schedules or routines), is a key step toward developing innovative approaches that may disrupt the existing structures. Re-examining organizational behaviors and/or structures that may inadvertently cause a barrier to broadening participation should be a priority for seeking solutions.

  • Icon for: Catherine McCulloch

    Catherine McCulloch

    Lead Presenter
    May 16, 2019 | 10:31 a.m.

    Tracy,

    Good point. The most recent National Survey of Science & Mathematics Education (2018 NSSME+) reports that "in elementary schools, mathematics is taught on most or all school days in most classes, but science is taught on most or all school days in only 35 percent of grades 4-6 classes and 17 percent of grades K-3 classes. Further, the typical elementary class spends about 20 minutes per day on science instruction compared with 60 minutes on mathematics and 90 minutes on reading/language arts." The NSSME+ report includes a lot of other very interesting information as well. It's worth a read for anyone who hasn't yet seen it.

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    Arthur Powell

    Researcher
    May 16, 2019 | 08:28 a.m.

    Hi Tracey,

    I am delighted that you like the video's take on equity in STEM education. I agree with you that it is essential that we find effective ways to reach all who influence education. One important group of influencers are politicians at the municipal, state, and national levels. Somehow, students, parents, teachers, school administrators, and other citizens collectively need to insist that politicians educate themselves about evidence-based measures to improve STEM education and enact legislation to support structural economic and societal changes to ensure that currently marginalized and underrepresented communities in STEM preferentially benefit. For instance, as you mentioned, the challenge that teachers identify about needed increased instructional time to work on STEM disciplines should be a priority in schools of students from underrepresented groups. To do so, may mean deemphasizing large-scale assessments so that teachers rather than preparing students to perform well a narrow band of disciplinary skills at can focus their instructional efforts on developing students around exciting disciplinary ideas.

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    Maria Olivares

    Researcher
    May 16, 2019 | 03:54 p.m.

    This video truly resonated with me, particularly Cory's statement that we want everyone to feel that they can participate in STEM if they wanted to. I think what we need to do as a field is work toward opening up pathways and supporting the development of robust curriculum and resources that incorporate insights, perspectives, and values of marginalized groups so that if/when someone wants to participate in STEM, they will be well equipped so with both a multiplicity of opportunities to do so AND be prepared to successfully navigate through STEM education and careers in ways that prove to be personally enriching and fulfilling. This means that efforts to broaden participation must provide supports for youth from marginalized groups to navigate spaces where dominant and exclusionary notions and practices of STEM predominate. This means that not only must we create opportunities, we must also create societal change. Policy is one way to address this, but we must also think about things like campus racial climate, for example. There a number of push-out mechanisms that must be addressed in order to provide opportunities and maintain pathways open from K-graduate school.

     
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    Salvador Huitzilopochtli
  • Icon for: Salvador Huitzilopochtli

    Salvador Huitzilopochtli

    Co-Presenter
    May 16, 2019 | 05:44 p.m.

    Hi Maria!  Yes.  Thank you for this comment.  Two things come to mind.  First, many students (for example, disproportionately more female STEM students) get counseled out of taking advanced mathematics courses.  Deficit views of students might motivate a discouraging comment from an authority (like a teacher or counselor).  Educators should be reflective about their engagements with students to promote equitable access.  The second thing is related to positioning theory.  It is important to consider how positioning (among students, but also between teachers and students) plays a role in student access to discussions, activities, and curricula.  

     
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    Jessica Hunt
  • Icon for: Catherine McCulloch

    Catherine McCulloch

    Lead Presenter
    May 16, 2019 | 04:32 p.m.

     Maria, good to hear from you! You mention, "There a number of push-out mechanisms that must be addressed in order to provide opportunities and maintain pathways open from K-graduate school."

    What are some of those push-out mechanisms? And what do we know about how to address them?

  • Icon for: Rita MacDonald

    Rita MacDonald

    Researcher
    May 17, 2019 | 05:45 p.m.

    Such an interesting and rich discussion! One major push-out force affecting English Learners is the misconception that students need complex or complicated language before they can engage meaningfully in science. Instead, we know that students really develop language for doing STEM by...well, by doing STEM. If we position ELs as sense-makers and idea generators alongside their more experienced peers, and create situations in which they have opportunities to co-construct understanding, the desire to share and co-construct ideas serves as an engine driving language development for students. An added benefit is that we're able to listen in as students 'think out loud, and deepen and support both reasoning and language development. There are many open-access resources to assist with that here.

     
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    Salvador Huitzilopochtli
  • Icon for: Cory Buxton

    Cory Buxton

    Co-Presenter
    May 18, 2019 | 11:32 a.m.

    Thanks Rita for weighing in with this important point regarding broadening participation for English Learners and for sharing these resources. Here's a list of some of the practices that we are working with science and ESOL teachers to develop for supporting English learners' sense-making in (and beyond) science.

  • Icon for: Edith Graf

    Edith Graf

    Researcher
    May 16, 2019 | 08:54 p.m.

    Thank you for this video! I am curious about classroom strategies that broaden participation by encouraging students to share their ideas, even when they are not sure those ideas are right. For example, in the mathematics classroom, how may students be encouraged to pose conjectures? 

  • Icon for: Salvador Huitzilopochtli

    Salvador Huitzilopochtli

    Co-Presenter
    May 16, 2019 | 09:21 p.m.

    That's a great question and thank you for commenting.  Taking intellectual risks is difficult for many people.  This can be especially true in the study of mathematics because it's so fraught with suppositions about intelligence.  One thing that teachers can do is to cultivate a classroom culture that regularly makes use of "errors".  That is to say, by focusing on reasoning when developing concepts, rather than the minutiae or correctness of vocabulary, students will learn that their thinking is valued and contributes to learning.  It also helps to have participation structures that support discussions in a variety of formats.  For example, when students can think-pair-share before sharing in a whole class discussion, they have an opportunity to refine their comments.

     
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    Edith Graf
  • Icon for: Edith Graf

    Edith Graf

    Researcher
    May 17, 2019 | 09:01 a.m.

    Thanks for the suggestions! We are thinking about how some mathematics tasks we have developed might be used formatively in the future, and the think-pair-share approach could be very helpful.

  • Icon for: Malcolm Butler

    Malcolm Butler

    Co-Presenter
    May 17, 2019 | 04:07 p.m.

    Hi Edith,

     To address this issue of students sharing ideas in science, I present to students that when scientists are doing experiments and something goes "wrong", they call that data. It's data because all information (including inaccuracies) could lead to new discoveries, so nothing is thrown away. Science notebooks are one of the ideal ways to document these data. I am sure there are other examples in science, but wanted to contribute to the your example encouraging students to share their ideas.

     
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    Edith Graf
  • Icon for: Edith Graf

    Edith Graf

    Researcher
    May 17, 2019 | 06:48 p.m.

    Thank you, Malcolm, I think this is a very good approach. In mathematics, perhaps mathematics journals could play the role of science notebooks; I think this might work especially well for framing conjectures and mathematical modeling, both of which are iterative by nature. For example, a conjecture is posed, someone finds a counterexample, and the conjecture is refined--I could see how through this process students could both learn mathematics and come to think of it as an exploratory practice.

  • Icon for: Salvador Huitzilopochtli

    Salvador Huitzilopochtli

    Co-Presenter
    May 20, 2019 | 07:37 p.m.

    Math Journals have been studied and shown to have some success.  To make the most of it, I would encourage you to help teachers and students move beyond "procedural" explanations (where they might simply describe the steps they took in a procedure).  Prompting students for reasoning is a good way to move toward "conceptual" explanations, which could include rationales for why something might be true (citing definitions, properties, etc.) or why they made a particular decision (regarding procedure or representation).  Focusing on reasoning also supports students from non-dominant communities and ELs.  Good luck and thank you for your participation!

  • Icon for: Tami LaFleur

    Tami LaFleur

    K-12 STEM Coordinator
    May 17, 2019 | 06:53 a.m.

    As a K-12 curriculum coordinator in my district I see all of these issues being brought up daily. There is little time formally scheduled for science Prek-4, and many elementary teachers feel that they do not have the answers that the students will want to know. They are less confident about teaching STEM content, and finally, teachers want good solid ideas and materials. BUT, things are getting better! Elementary schools are creating their own spaces for students to be given challenges and take risks. Families are sending in construction materials for the students to use. Spheros, Lego's, Makey Makey kits, Green Screens... I am excited to be part of a growing revolution of engaging students in design thinking. Community guests from the Audubon Society, our public library, and local museums are becoming a norm. For our middle school students, Sensata Industries has set up two mentoring programs- one for girls  and one for boys. They invited students to partner with Sensata engineers where they work together once a month after school at Sensata. They look at design challenges and work together to come up with creative solutions. These students and volunteer engineers have committed to three years for each group. Our middle schools teachers are building their own design studios where students can work on school projects at school where there is equal access to technology and materials. Finally, having a Career Tech Educational department within our high school has been life-changing. On any given day you will find students building a shed for actual customers according to discussed specifications, wiring a doorbell, or building the plumbing system for a working sink and toilet. I am certainly not saying there are not ways to improve STEM education. However, projects like the STEM Showcase make it clear that Design Thinking is a necessary priority. "If we build it- they will come." Let's keep offering opportunities for students to think on their own. Keep the resources coming, STEM Showcase!

  • May 17, 2019 | 11:43 a.m.

    Dear Tami,

    Thank you for watching our video and sharing your experiences. It is exciting to hear about the opportunities you and others in your district have cultivated for your students and teachers. I imagine that many people must have come together to design and curate these experiences, and that creating these opportunities took time, resources, and intentionality. I wonder how your district went about this process and if other districts would benefit from hearing about your experiences.

  • Icon for: Catherine McCulloch

    Catherine McCulloch

    Lead Presenter
    May 20, 2019 | 09:11 a.m.

    Tami,

    It is wonderful to hear about a school that is effectively partnering with the community and integrating engineering education into the curriculum. We recently posted a spotlight on NSF-supported preK-12 grade engineering education research which includes several free and open access resources for the classroom. Maybe there would something of interest for your school system there.

     

    Another person in this discussion asked about what it takes to build and maintain effective partnerships. It sounds like your system has some answers! I recently listened to this podcast about partnerships. According to the author of the related article, Ebony Bridwell-Mitchell, if you have partnerships you are more likely to continue to have them. That is good news for your district. On the other hand, states and districts may need to more proactively broker relationships for schools that do not have partnerships, but have resource needs.

  • Icon for: Tami LaFleur

    Tami LaFleur

    K-12 STEM Coordinator
    May 20, 2019 | 04:39 p.m.

    Thank you so much for the resource site, Catherine! I will definitely look into it. 

  • Icon for: Catherine McCulloch

    Catherine McCulloch

    Lead Presenter
    May 20, 2019 | 06:55 p.m.

    Great. Again, congratulations on the good work in your district!!

  • Icon for: Kate Meredith

    Kate Meredith

    Informal Educator
    May 18, 2019 | 07:39 a.m.

     I am glad the STEM Video Showcase will be available for review later.  There are many points of conversation here that I look forward to exploring in depth.  The IDATA  (and HERE) project has wrestled with creating the environment in which we can research the impacts of including people with blindness and visual impairments and fully sighted individuals in the user-centered design of data processing software for astronomy on computational thinking.  I am most curious about practices we can put in place that will frame out the widest possible doors while we continue to build a community that includes people with disabilities at all levels of the work.

  • May 20, 2019 | 04:02 p.m.

    Hi Kate,

    Thanks for engaging in this conversation and sharing information about your projects. I appreciate your question about practices that will expand the accessibility of learning environments to all students, including those with disabilities. As we consider approaches to broadening participation, I think we need to examine the frameworks by which we design learning environments. In the briefs we wrote as part of this larger effort (see http://cadrek12.org/broadening-participation), we outlined some theoretical frameworks relevant to broadening participation. In my own work, I have investigated the application of universal design principles to instruction and assessment to better understand the interaction between the learning environment and the learner. You reference user-centered design in your comment, and your video highlights how this approach can lead to solutions that are inclusive of the needs of people with blindness and visual impairments. A important contribution of work such as yours and others in this space is making this process actionable for others to learn, apply, and study. Also, as a research community, we can continue to expand our understanding of how multiple frameworks work together to create a more inclusive learning environment.

    Thanks again for your comments.

  • Icon for: Catherine McCulloch

    Catherine McCulloch

    Lead Presenter
    May 20, 2019 | 07:58 p.m.

    Thank you to everyone who viewed our video and expressed interest in broadening participation in STEM. Keep the conversation going!

  • Further posting is closed as the showcase has ended.